Sanitation Movement in India
Sanitation was not in the prime activity list of the
Government's development scenario, but Ramakrishna
Mission Lokasiksha Parishad (RKMLSP), Integrated
Development Institute of Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama,
Narendrapur was directly involved in promotion of rural
sanitation programs from that time. Considering the
outcomes of successful initiatives of RKMLSP in rural
sanitation promotion, Government of West Bengal and
UNICEF jointly identified this institute for
implementation of experimental project under "Water and
Sanitation Decade-1981-90" in the state of West Bengal.
In the year
1989, RKMLSP designed an innovative "Intensive
Sanitation Project" (ISP) for undivided Medinipur
district, where 1% of Indians live, in collaboration
with the UNICEF and Government of West Bengal. The
project was launched in March 1990 in the Medinipur
Basic features of Medinipur ISP were :-
It was a
Demand Driven, Community Led and Self Financed
was on intensive, area specific and time bound
Information Education and Communication (IEC) and
Social Mobilization for creation of demand for
toilets and adopt the hygiene behaviour by the
community as a whole.
Women were in the forefront of the movement.
Capacity Development activities for inculcating
positive aptitude and skills for implementation of
No subsidy, Community Led and Demand Driven
Sanitation for the functionaries of Non-Government
Organisations (NGO), Community Based Organisations (CBO),
Administration and Panchayati Raj Institutions from
district to village level.
it was a "No Subsidy" programme for construction of
household toilet. Households were contributing
entire cost of home toilet. Government of West
Bengal introduced an end incentive of Rs.200.00 for
BPL families for installation of home toilet from
Demonstration of different affordable technological
options in toilet models with up gradation
facilities. Six different cost effective household
toilet models with a range of costing from Rs.230.00
to 2,600.00 (in 1990) offered to the families for
alternative delivery network was developed by
establishing Production Centre cum Sanitary Marts in
each block involving Cluster Organizations of RKMLP
to facilitate the supply of toilet materials and
of Grass root level voluntary workers (Sanitation
motivator) was developed involving village youth
clubs and Gram Panchayats. Incentive of motivators
was linked with achievement.
first time in the country a Voluntary Organization
was entrusted to act as Nodal Agency for
implementing Sanitation project in a district while
the District Administration and Panchayat Raj
Institutions were extending the necessary supports
in implementation of Sanitation Programme.
systematic weekly monitoring mechanism involving all
sectors was developed to monitor the progress and to
overcome the shortcomings.
the first sanitation project, which has been
initiated in a Movement-mode for promotion of
sanitation in the country.
IEC Materials Developed by RKMLP for Promotion of
developed different types of Information Education and
Communication (IEC) materials to cater to the needs of
the programme. The field functionaries of demand driven
sanitation programme of Medinipur contributed a lot in
development of contents of the materials.
on Sanitation for field functionaries (in Bengali &
Answer Book on Sanitation for field functionaries.
Cards on Sanitation and Hygiene.
Drawing, Design Book on production & Construction of
on different themes.
Demand Driven, Community Led and Self Financed
on (a) Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (b) Need for a
Toilet in Home.
Cassette with 10 Songs on Sanitation and Safe Water.
three nos. feature based motivational Video Films on
- JEEVAN PATUA
- AAR DERI NOY
Calendar on Sanitation and Hygiene practice.
different toilet designs and scope of up gradation,
hygiene message etc.
of Slogan developed by the field implementers, which
are still in use in West Bengal.
Demonstrated Nirmal Village concept in 1990
Replication of Medinipur ISP strategy
the success of Medinipur ISP, Government of West
Bengal replicated the strategy in 14 Blocks of
different districts in West Bengal in 1992-93
financial year. And gradually the strategy was
adopted in all districts in West Bengal. At that
time all types of technical support was provided
from the RKMLSP to Govt. of West Bengal.
reframing the CRSP in 1998, experiences of ISP
Medinipur influenced the Government of India to
adopt the following strategies in Total Sanitation
Campaign (TSC) launched in 2000 in the country.
i) Sanitation as a movement
ii) Community Led and Demand Driven process
iii) Low subsidy for basic household toilets
iv) Alternative supply chain management system for toilet
v) Involvement of NGO in program implementation
Achievements in Sanitation movement:-
Government of West Bengal and UNICEF jointly
recognised two Gram Panchayats "ODF" in 1994.
- II was the First ODF Block in the country and got
recognition of Govt. of West Bengal and UNICEF in
Medinipur got recognition of ODF district in 2016.
Recognition for sanitation in the country
Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation,
Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India
awarded prestigious "Nirmal Gram Puraskar"
(Institutional Category) to Ramakrishna Mission
Lokasiksha Parishad of Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama,
Narendrapur in recognition of its commendable
contribution to promotion of rural sanitation
programmes in the country. In a function, organised
in the Vijyan Bhavan, New Delhi by the Department of
Drinking Water Supply, Hon'ble Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam,
President of India handed over the award to Swami
Asaktananda, the then Secretary of the Ashrama on
23rd March 2006.
has been recognised by the Department of Drinking
Water and Sanitation, Government of India as one of
the Key Resource Centre for Sanitation since 2005.
Conducted capacity development activities on policy
issues, strategy, management process and technology
for different stakeholders of sanitation deputed by
the Government of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam,
Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh etc.
Govt. of India included RKMLSP in the following
committees of Central Rural Sanitation Programme.
Scheme Sanctioning Committee for Total Sanitation
Campaign (TSC) from 2001-2010.
Review Mission for TSC & Swajaldhara Programmes.
Screening Committee for Nirmal Gram Puraskar